There are some who may find it offensive to construct such a chronology of Vietnam's rich history and the NLF as I have begun here, in a venue primarily about Marines and the Marine experience in peacetime and war. To those who do, I quite understand. Combat veterans of bitter fighting with the Japanese in the Pacific upon returning to battlefields many years later, found it very difficult to hold out a hand and shake in a friendly acknowledgment. Even I, who waited on the ledge of this hell early in the Vietnam War cannot empathize sufficiently with a Marine who, perhaps fought not far from a spot where I stood, as he struggled in mortal combat for his life. Most such men I expect would never return to this place as a tourist or even in memory. The experience is that bad. Navy Corpsmen assigned to Marine infantry platoons attend to the wounded under fire on the battlefield. Corpsmen have suffered, in the passing of years, the most severely from PTSD.

But having stated this , I have begun this long historical chronology of tiny bits of thread which lead to the great volume of large and small works on the war, war with the Chinese, French colonization, the Japanese occupation, the French Indochina War and finally war with the United States.

Sadly, many library shelves are being purged of these old mildewed works, either because of space and cost demands or low to zero circulations numbers. So, with an eye toward understanding some of these events myself, I begin this lengthy collection of tiles which will hopefully reveal something about ourselves in situ in the world communities, even today. After all, the trauma of war is a double edge sword.

M.Malsbary- August 2006-rev.March /2007

The background music is linked from Danang City's web site.

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This parallel chronology was begun July of 2004 as an continuation of personal research that has generated the various manuscripts presented on this site. Like the Starlite Chronology, it is comprised of excerpts from many books and papers on the war. In presenting an historical background in the format of a mirror parallel chronology, it is my intention to foster understanding (for myself and others) of the powerful forces that actually caused the first battle, Operation Starlite, to occur in August 1965. In presenting excerpts from the works,s I have taken liberty to select statements that, even if only remotely relavant, illuminate the nature of the Viet Cong*, or Front soldier and the joining of the two military forces in mortal combat. Brief excerpts from the vast period between 1850 and the close of the French Indochina War in 1954 to the U.S. entry in 1965 will hopefully create a thumbnail for the student as well as an easy fast forward overview for the veteran or other visitor. Although these works did not include statements by NLF (National Liberation Front) participants of Operation Starlite, the statements of NLF soldiers and political operatives will hopefully render a vivid contrast to the long U.S. chronology that lead to the official deployment of U.S. Forces into the Southeast Asia on March and April of 1965. (note*: From the French War,"Viet Cong" is a racially derogatory epithet. Recently during a system search in a local library- my use of the term generated a message, "Term not used in this library system. Try instead "Mat Tran Dan Toc Gia Phong Mein Nam Viet Nam" ed.M.Malsbary July 4, 2004
"China conquered the northern part of present-day Vietnam, and later changed the name of the region to Annam." B.C.111 N/A site no longer available
"The region of Kuang Wu Ti was chiefly occupied in warring against the different bands of rebels, which had arisen throughout the country against the usurper Wang Mang. Among the most notable wars of his region was one against a female chieftain, named Chen-tse, the ruler of northern part of Annam (modern Tongking), who refused to pay the customary tribute to the empire. The struggle of this chieftainess for independence, like that of Boadicea in Britain against the Romans, was put down with ruthless severity, and both she and her sister were beheaded." A.D. 57-78 N/A F.L.Hawks Pott,DD, A Sketch Of Chinese History, 5th Revised Edition, Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, 1936
"Annam in Southeast Asia obtains independence after more than 1000 years of Chinese domination." A.D.906 NA site no longer available
"China withdrew from Annam, and the Vietnamese kingdom of Dia Co Viet was established. Other Vietnamese kingdoms ruled southern areas of present-day Vietnam. A.D.939 N/A site no longer available
Vietnamese art and culture thrived during the Ly dynasty. A.D.1009-1225 N/A site no longer available
"Kublai Khan leads a 500,000 man Chinese army into Vietnam. Guerrillas organized by Tran Hung Dao virtually destroy the invasion force." A.D.1284 N/A site no longer available
"Khubilai (Khan-ed) also sent an expedition against Cambodia, which had revolted and thrown off its allegiance to the Chinese Empire. The invading army, attempting to pass through the territory of the King of Annam, nominally a vassal state, was vigorously opposed by the Annamites, and the Mongols suffered much on the march from the extreme heat to which they were exposed. This was to them all the more trying as they were accustomed to rigorous climate of their northern home. Although they finally broke down the resistance of the Annamites, they made but little progress against the Cambodians, and finally, owning to their army being much weakened by loss from sickness, were forced to retire. Annam remained nominally a tribute state of China, but it retained a semi-independence until, at a later period, it became a dependency of the French Republic." A.D. 1281 N/A F.L.Hawks Pott,DD, A Sketch Of Chinese History, 5th Revised Edition,Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, 1936
"Chinese seized control of Dia Co Viet, but resistance forces led by Le Loi drove the Chinese from the country and established the kingdom of Dai Viet." A.D.1407-1428 N/A site no longer available
"Vietnam regains her independence from China's Ming Empire." A.D. 1428 N/A site no longer available
"Dai Viet conquered the southern Vietnamese kingdom of Champa, but intermittent fighting between the north and south continued until 1673." A.D.1471 N/A Reference source on file
"The Tay Son begin to sieze control of much of Dai Viet from the Nguyen dynasty." 1770 N/A site no longer available
"The beginning of the French relations with Annam dates back to the time of Louis XV (1715). The Kingdom of Annam was divided into three parts: Tonking in the north, Annam proper in the middle, and Cochin-China in the south. French missionaries introduced a knowledge of Christianity into the country, and met with considerable success in the way of gaining converts. From time to time, troubles arose between Christian converts and the French priests. This gave France an excuse for interfering in the political affairs of the country, and finally resulted in her obtaining the whole of Cochin-China in 1867." A.D. 1867 N/A F.L.Hawks Pott,DD, A Sketch Of Chinese History, 5th Revised Edition,Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, 1936
"After the Franco Prussian War, the French Government directed its attention to fostering schemes of colonization, and was desirous of annexing Tongking, the territory lying to the north of Annam, especially a by so doing the rich resources of Yunnan could be tapped by French merchants by way of the Red River. Accordingly, one or two filibustering expeditions were sent against Hanoi, the capital of the province." A.D.1884 N/A F.L.Hawks Pott,DD, A Sketch Of Chinese History, 5th Revised Edition,Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, 1936
"Nguyen Anh defeated the Tay son and united the northern and southern parts of the country, which he renamed Vietnam." 1802 N/A site no longer available
"The French seized control of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) and began establishing a colonial government in Vietnam." 1861 N/A site no longer available
"The coastline of South China was a succession of the blue hills and headlands off set with islands. Squat Kwangtung fishing junks crowded the best anchorages. On their bows, the painted eyes looked down for fish, unlike those on Hainan junks, which searched the far horizon. It was an old joke that the same distinction could be made of the people of the two places. On the last of the fair winds and the end of August, the Hainan junks reached the Portuguese colony of Macao at the mouth of the Pearl River, its waterfront lined with Iberian bungalows, sprawling warehouses, and the towers of Catholic churches. Four months later, on the new monsoon in December, the traders traditionally finished selling their goods and loading new cargoes. Heaving southward from Macao in irregular squadrons, the Big-eyed Chickens cleared first Hanoi then Saigon, and stood across the Gulf of Siam to Malaya. In each of these ports there were industrious Chinese colonies. Further south, in Malaya, Sumatra, Java and Borneo, there were also large rural Chinese populations, working tin mines, running shops, or purchasing raw materials in the interior for transfer to the coast." around 1875 0000 Sterling Segrave, The Soong Dynasty, Harper & Row, New York, 1985
(ed.note)What was the source of Vietnamese disdain,from a historical perspective, for the ever presence of the Chinese in South East Asia? Here's an interesting explanation I ran across recently in John King Fairbank's "The Great Chinese Revolution-1800-1985".

"Maritime China in modern times consisted partly of the treaty ports and partly of the overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world. In the Seventeenth century, after the fall of the Ming, Vietnam had received Chinese refugees. About the same time Overseas Chinese merchants developed a dominant position in the foreign trade of Siam, which supplied rice to South China under the normal guise of tributary trade. When Batavia,Manila and finally Singapore were founded by Europeans, their Chinese communities developed with great rapidity. Particularly in the East Indies, Chinese became a middle stratum between the Dutch overlords and the mass of Javanese population. While the Indochinese opium trade is best known from the British record, the Indian opium supply also flowed into Southeast Asia, partly in Chinese hands."

to late 1800s-early 1900s N/A Fairbank,John King, The Great Chinese Revolution 1800-1985, Harper and Row, Harper Perennial Edition, New York, 1987
"France controls all of Vietnam as well as Laos and Cambodia." 1883 N/A site no longer available
"The King of Annam had for along time been a vassal of China, and had sent tribute missions to Peking. Hence he naturally appealed to the emperor of China and asked for protection against the French, especially as he regarded Tonking as part of the territory over which he ruled...Li Hung-Chang was appointed Chinese representative to carry on negotiations with France, and finally agreed to hand over to France all of the country south of the Songoi or Red River. This proposition was rejected, however, both in Peking and in Paris. For ten years matters remained in an unsatisfactory condition, the French being aggressive, and the Annamese exerting themselves to check their inroads." 1894 N/A F.L.Hawks Pott,DD, A Sketch Of Chinese History, 5th Revised Edition,Kelly and Walsh, Limited, Shanghai, 1936
"The French were aided in their conquest of Indochina by a policy of appeasment pursued by the Vietnamese Royal Court under the unpopular Emperor Tu Duc (1847-83) of the ruling Nguyen family. Tu Duc's regime faced a growing revolt of the peasantry, which the royal family perceived as a greater threat to its rule than the French hovering off its coast. This was a serious miscalculation. Tu Duc signed away the country piece by piece to the French beginning in 1863, when the French captured six Vietnamese provinces around Saigon. In 1874 Tu Duc made more territorial concessions and finally in 1882 the French fleet captured Hanoi. The French were now in control of all of the country." 1882 N/A Joe Allen, Vietnam: The war that the U.S. Lost-Part one, International Socialist Review Issue 29, May-June 2003, On-Line edition- Source cited: Ngo Vinh Long, Vietnam's Revolutionary Tradition in Vietnam and America in Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
"The Vietnamese economy was reorganized for the benefit of the French and their Vietnamese collaborators. The chief architect of France's policies in Vietnam was Paul Doumer, who was appointed governor general of Indochina and arrived in 1897. His goal from the day he arrived was to make Vietnam "profitable colony" for France. Doumer said Indochina will "serve France in Asia on the day that it was no longer a poverty-stricken colony..Its strong organization, its financial and economic structures..are being used for the benefit of French prestige." Doumer established monopolies for the production and marketing of alcohol, salt and opium. French businessmen, whose monopolies were interlocked with the powerful Bank of Indochina, became very wealthy." 1897 N/A

Joe Allen citing Ngo Vinh Long

The Concession 1900 N/A
"Shanghai began to boom. An atmosphere of freebooting capitalism took hold, and the role of cutthroat merchant gentleman was played to the hilt. Criminals and swindlers disembarked in great numbers....Lancelot Dent and his partner, T.C. Beale, of Dent & Company were the first serious rivals to Jardine and his partner Matheson. Both firms used fast saling ships to pick up mail in Calcutta or Hong Kong and race north to Shanghai ahead of the sluggish British mail ships. In this manner they learned the latest commercial news from Europe a day ahead of would-be new rivals- and made fantastic killings. The leading American hongs (warehouse-ed mtm) were Russell and Company, Heard & Company, Wetmore's, Olyphant's, and Wolcott, Bates & Company. Among these, the most powerful was the established opium trader Russell & Company, linked to the famous Yankee merchant clans of Roosevelt, Delano, and Forbes." 1830-1900 0000 Sterling Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty, Harper & Row, New York, 1985
"Ho Chi Minh's path to revolution mirrors that of many Asian nationalists of his generation. In much the same way, Professor Li Dazhou, stunned by the very fact of the Bolshevik Revolution, called on his Chinese students to join him in studying Marxism and Leninism and, a few years later founded the Chinese Communist Party" around 1919-1920 0000 Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
"French colonial policies had their biggest impact on rice farming, the source of livelihood for the vast majority of people. ..Tens of thousands of acres were taken away from the Vietnamese and given to the French at dirt cheap prices. Many of the French owned 3,000 to 7,000 acres. despite this robbery most Vietnamese still owned something. After 1900 the French theft of land increased. By the 1930s over half the peasants in Tonkin and Annam were landless, while in Cochinchina 75 percent were landless and the rest owned next to nothing. Tennant farmers and sharecroppers had to pay anywhere between 50-75 percent of their crops to landlords and in addition, provide free gifts and services." 1900-1930 N/A Joe Allen, Vietnam: The war that the U.S. Lost-Part one, Internationial Socialist Review Issue 29, May-June 2003, On-Line edition- Source cited: Ngo Vinh Long, Vietnam's Revolutionary Tradition in Vietnam and America in Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
Farmers and peasants: "But this is not all, since the landlords do not let the tenants go freely tilling the land and gathering the paddies to pay the rent. They force the tenants to work for a whole month without any compensation. They force them to borrow 50 piasters which is to be paid by 100 gia (40 liters each, or 300 piasters at the current price) of paddy rice at harvest time (that is, six months later). They force them to present white rice for offerings during holidays in the fifth months...When the harvest comes, the landlords send their thugs to guard the threshing grounds. As soon as the rice is threshed, the thugs clean up every thing. What is left for the tenants are the piles of hay..." 1929 0000 Thi Huynh Lan, Phu Nu Tan Van (New literature on women) 1929; quoted in Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
"In spite of the overwhelming difficulties described above, by the mid 1920s several revolutionary groups began to organize groups of peasants, workers and intellectuals in the struggle against the colonial regime and its collaborators. On 3 February 1930 at the unification meeting in Kowloon (China), the three communitst parties of Vietnam merged into a single party under the name Vietnam Communist Party (Dang Cong San Viet Nam. The meeting had been convened on 6 January by Nguyen Ai Quoc (later President Ho Chi Minh)...the party subsequently changed its name to Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) and soon emerges as the undisputed leader of the Vietnamese Revolution." 1930 0000 Tran Huy Lieu,Modern Vietnamese Revolution, Hanoi: Ban Nghien Cuu Van su Dia xuat ban, 1956; quoted in Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
Employed workers: "Each male worker gets a little more than two dimes (20 cents) to three dimes a day and a woman or girl worker gets only 18 cents. Even so, when the time comes for us to receive our pay we seldom get a full amount. The larger parts of our wages are taken by the supervisors and foremen..(and) our salaries are already too low. How can we survive with all these fines and cuts? Moreover, food prices increase every day and we have become hungrier and hungrier." 1936 0000 excerpt letter to the editor,Dong Phap (Eastern France) 5 Dec.1936 quoted in Vietnam and America: A Documented History, ed.Marvin Gettleman, Jane Franklin, Marilyn B. Young and H. Bruce Franklin, Grove Press, New York 1995
Along with the developing chronology in Indochina came the revolutionary movements of the Long March in China lead by Mao Tse-Tung, an exodus of peasants,workers and intellectuals numbering thousands, all revolutionary soldiers, in a long treck six thousand miles into northwest China to establish a Communist government. It is interesting to note that Cho En-lai, a political leader close to Mao, in the early days, spent time in Paris around the same period as Ho Chi Minh. Here are some excerpts from Edgar Snow's wonderful book Red Star Over China,to give a quick view of the developing storm. The time is mid twenties, to mid-late thirties. Imperial Japan is on the move. It is the early eve of World War II. For me, understanding the developments in Indochina require a general understanding of the formation of Red China. ed.m.malsbary. 1925-1935 0000

Example Communist Banknote w/worker slogans dated 1919
"Released, Chou went to France. Influenced by post-war Communism, he helped organized the Chinese Communist Party in Paris, and become founder of the organization simultaneously formed in China. Two years of study in Paris, a few months in England, to France again, and then a year of study in Germany. In 1924 he returned to China, already a well-known revolutionary organizer, and at once joined Sun Yat-sen at Canton, who was then preparing for the Nationalist Revolution, in co-operation with the Chinese Communist Party and with Soviet Russia." P 46 1924 0000 Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, 4th printing, Random House, New York, 1938
"Lin Piao is the son of a factory owner at in Hupeh province and was born in 1908. His father was ruined by extortionate taxation, but Lin managed to get through prep school, and become a cadet in the famous Whampoa Academy at Canton. There he made a brilliant record. With Mao Tse-tung, Lin Piao shared the distinction of being one of a few Red commanders never wounded.In 1932 Lin Piao was given command of the First Red Army Corps, which then numbered about 20,000 rifles. It became the most dreaded section of the Red Army. Chiefly due to Lin's extraordinary talent as a tactician, it destroyed, defeated or out-maneuvered every Government force sent against it and was never broken in battle." P.95 1932 0000 Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, 4th printing, Random House, New York, 1938
"Like many Red commanders, Lin has never been outside China, speaks and reads no language but Chinese. Before the age of thirty, however, he has already won recognition beyond Red circles. His articles in the Chinese Reds' military magazines Struggle and War and Revolution, have been republished, studied and criticized in Nanking military journals, and also in Japan and Soviet Russia. He is noted as the originator of the "short-attack".To the Reds' skillful mastery of the "short-attack" many victories of the First Army Corps are said to be traceable." P.96 1932 0000 Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, 4th printing, Random House, New York, 1938
"..Let us begin with the startling reversal of the historical image of the Kuomintang (Nationalist, led by Chiang Kai-shek ed note mtm)As of 1928 China's future seemed to be with the KMT; the CCP,(Chinese Communist Party ed note mtm) always small in minority, seemed to have been wiped out, consigned to history's dustbin. How come the situation was reversed twenty years later? If the Japanese invasion after 1931 was a main factor, how did it weaken the KMT and strengthen the CCP? One answer is that the Nationalist Government of the KMT had become burdened with the problems of the old establishment, while the CCP, to survive, had to create a new order." 1928-1948 0000 John King Fairbank,The Great Chinese Revolution 1800-1985 Harper & Row, New York, 1987
"Like Mussolini, Chiang was determined to scrub his nation clean, teach the peasants not to spit, and make the trains run on time. Like Hitler, he was determined to get rid of all social and political perverts, and discipline the citizens, even if it took a few severe beatings. Chiang believed that fascism stood on three legs- nationalism, absolute faith in the Maximum Leader, and a spartan militarization of the citizens." 1930s, 40s 0000 Sterling Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty, Harper & Row, New York, 1985
"Three months after the government of Marshal Petain capitulated to the Nazi conquerors, a second stunning blow was dealt to the helpless French empire. In September 1940, Japanese troops swept into Tonkin, the northern division of France's Asian colony...For reasons of political convenience, the invaders chose to preserve intact the Siagon administration of Admiral Jean Decoux...Decoux swore loyalty to the Petainist regime at Vichy....The French colonials (only 40,000 of Indochina's 23 million inhabitants) were permited to maitain control of their own army, so long as the vanquished troops did not interfere with Japanese mlitary operations against the Allies.." 1940 0000 R. Harris Smith, OSS The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency Dell Publishing, New York, 1972
"At least on the colonial issue, the OSS was in full accord with State Department officers in the Far East, and Donovan's (Gen. William Donovan founder of the OSS-ed-mtm-note)organization became the "faithful secular arm" of the diplomats' "anti-colonialist fundamentalism". Long before the Japanese surrender, OSS planners had suggested that "American cooperation with patriotic, subversive revolutionary groups in southeastern Asia would appreciably increase our offensive power against Japan. When the task of American representation in southern Asia in the immediate postwar period later fell to the OSS, Ho Chi Minh (Ngyen Ai Quoc)and other anticolonial crusaders received their first spiritual impetus from the unauthorized American diplomats of Donovan's band." 1940 0000 R. Harris Smith, OSS The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency Dell Publishing, New York, 1972
"In May of 1941, as the Decoux administration became firmly established in Siagon under Japanese auspices, a cabol of Vietnamese revolutionaries met in southern China to reorganize their scattered ranks into a unified political organization. The leader of this new Viet Minh movement was Nguyen Ai Quoc, a frail bearded Communist agitator who had devoted his life to the cause of Vietnamese independence." 1941 0000 R. Harris Smith, OSS The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency Dell Publishing, New York, 1972
TIME MARKER: Imperial Japan attacks U.S. Naval Base Pearl Harbor Hawaii sinking 19 ships leaving 2,300 dead. U.S. declares war on Japan on December 8 and on Germany December 11. December 7, 1941 0755 AM Hawaiian time ed note-mtm
"The Viet Minh had just begun to expand its nationalist front when Nguyen Ai Quoc was suddenly arrested in August of 1942 by Tai Li's omniscent police agents. Wary of Quoc's Communist background the Chinese had laid thier own plans to build a Vietnamese nationalist movement subject to Kuomintang domination (ed note mtm-Chinese nationalist movement under Gen. Chiang Kai-shek- allied with the U.S.) ....While Quoc languished in a Chinese jail his lieutenants diligently constructed a effective military intelligence network throughout Tonkin." 1942 0000 R. Harris Smith, OSS The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency Dell Publishing, New York, 1972
Tia Li is one of many notables one runs across in a study of the 30s and 40s Asian chronologies. Generalissimo Chiang Ka-shek lead the right wing Chinese Nationalists largely allied early on with the U.S. General Claire Lee Chennault and the mercenary American Volunteer Group who were fighting the Imperial Japanese then brutally invading and pillaging China in rapid territorial expansion, was paid by the Generalissimo. Tai Le a lieutenant of Chiang’s formed the Gestapo like Chinese secret police who among other things, were in hot pursuit of the increasingly powerful members of the Chinese Communist movement. For a time the two factions, the Komintang KMT (the Nationalist) and Comintern (Communists) together formed a unified front against the Japanese. In fact, after the Long March in 1933, the OSS in operation Dixie Mission, obtained permission from the Generalissimo to visit Mao Tze-tung, Chou En-lai, Lin Pao and company at the new Communist headquarters in the caves at Yenan. In an exchange for arms and munitions and money from the U.S. the OSS people gained access to an astounding wealth of intelligence relating to the Japanese. It was a relationship that continued in an agenda to defeat the Japanese, especially after 1941. Managers of the U.S.largess became the now legiondary figures from the early CIA, or OSS like Milton "Mary" Miles, General“Wild Bill” Donovan, John Service, name William Davies (the Old China Hands)among many others. Further complexities of this cast of characters included Patrick Hurley, Roosevelt’s special envoy to Chiang, General “Vinegar” Joe Stillwell, of China, India, Burma fame, and General Douglas Macarthur-Supreme Commander Pacific, who adamantly opposed any insertion of the OSS into his Far Eastern military empire. The Machiavellian results of the exclusion would find the OSS allying with Tai Li and the Nationalist in Chungking, as an end run around Macarthur’s tight organizational exclusion. Caustic maneuvering between Stillwell the Generalissimo the OSS operatives, which included a parade of rich American lawyers, insurance executives, priests and professional military people, even a Sears and Roebuck executive, continued until and after Stillwell was relieved of duty by President Roosevelt at the request of the Generalissimo. The intrigue even include a tale about streams of Chinese intelligence from the OSS in China intended for the State Department documents which were instead delivered to T.V. Soong’s headquarters in Washington, intelligence relating to China ending up in the hands of a powerful American Chinese financier of the Nationalist revolution. It was one of T.V. Soong’s bright daughters May-ling who became the wife of the Generalissimo. Long before the Japanese were defeated the Koumintang and Comintern’s fragile unity eroded precipitating the Communist’s Long March to Yenan in Northwestern China. The stage was set for victory over Japan, post war civil war and revolution in China and Communist victory over the Nationalist which would extend to Korea and the ancient vassal state of Annam which became Vietnam which became French Indochina which became the Republic of Vietnam which became In-country, which became "Nam" and finally, Vietnam. To summarize, my purpose here is to insert tiles of information that logically lead to the initiation of the U.S.’s war in Vietnam in 1965, the subject of this website. mtm 0000 1930-45
"The success of the Viet Minh espionage was not lost on Chiang Kai-shek's generals. In September 1943, after a year of confinement Nguyen Ai Quoc agreed, in return for his freedom, to enlist the Viet Minh organization on behalf of one important Chinese warlord. Without the knowldege of Tai-li's minions, the warlord secured Quoc's release. The Viet Minh leader assumed a new name to cloak his identity from General Tia's agents. He now called himself Ho Chi Minh.....Slowly and methodically, this intelligence organization was transformed in to a small guerilla army under the brilliant military command of Vo Nguyen Giap, a former Hanoi schoolteacher whose wife had died at the hands of the French police....As the Viet Minh strength increased Ho's relations with the Chinese financial patrons became strained. By 1944 the Communists and their supporters were no longer in need of Kuomintang assistance....the Viet Minh sought new Allied sponsorship-at OSS headquarters in Kunming." 1943-44 0000 R. Harris Smith, OSS The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency Dell Publishing, New York, 1972